Empowering Identities: The Supreme Court of India and Transgender Rights

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


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In the vibrant tapestry of India, where diverse cultures and identities intertwine, the rights of transgender individuals have historically remained in the shadows. But, as societies evolve and understanding deepens, there’s an impetus to recognize and protect the rights of every individual, irrespective of their gender identity. Spearheading this change in India is the Supreme Court, which has played an instrumental role in acknowledging and securing transgender rights.

1. Recognition of Transgender as a Third Gender:

  • In the landmark National Legal Services Authority vs. Union of India (2014), colloquially known as the ‘NALSA judgment’, the Supreme Court recognized transgender persons as the ‘third gender’, distinct from male or female. This judgment not only acknowledged their unique identity but also emphasized that they are entitled to all the rights under the Constitution.

2. Right to Self-identify Gender:

  • The NALSA judgment also enshrined the right of transgender persons to self-identify their gender as male, female, or third gender. This self-determination is integral, as it respects the individual’s personal understanding of their gender.

3. Protection from Discrimination:

  • Drawing from Articles 14, 15, 16, and 21 of the Constitution, the Court ruled that discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity would be unconstitutional. It was emphasized that every transgender person has equal rights and must be treated as socially and educationally backward classes, thereby enabling reservations in admissions in educational institutions and jobs.

4. Right to Dignity and Autonomy:

  • The Supreme Court asserted that transgender individuals, like all other citizens, have the right to personal autonomy and self-expression. This includes the preservation of dignity, freedom from violence, and access to healthcare facilities.

5. Right to Health:

  • Recognizing the unique health needs and challenges faced by transgender individuals, especially related to sex reassignment surgeries, the Court directed the Centre and State Governments to provide medical care to transgender individuals in hospitals and provide them separate public toilets and other facilities.

6. Inclusion in Public Spheres:

  • The Court also stressed the importance of creating awareness and sensitizing the masses. It urged that public awareness campaigns be launched to remove the societal stigma attached to transgender communities. Further, measures should be taken to regain their respect and place in the society which they once enjoyed in our cultural and social life.

7. Privacy and Mental Health:

  • The judgment acknowledged the trauma and mental health struggles many transgender individuals face due to societal pressures and prejudices. It recognized their right to privacy and the necessity of mental healthcare and counselling.


The Supreme Court of India, through its pivotal judgments, has ushered in a new era of recognition, respect, and rights for transgender individuals. While the legal foundation has been laid, the journey toward full social acceptance and understanding is ongoing. What remains constant, however, is the judiciary’s commitment to ensuring that the ideals of justice, equality, and liberty extend to every individual, transcending the binaries and embracing all identities.