Producing Email Messages in Indian Courts: A Comprehensive Guide

Shivendra Pratap Singh


High Court Lucknow


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Emails, as digital footprints of communication, have become increasingly pertinent pieces of evidence in legal proceedings. However, the admissibility of emails in the courts of India has specific prerequisites. If you’re seeking to introduce email messages as evidence, this comprehensive guide will help you navigate the complex terrain of legal admissibility in Indian courts.

Why Emails as Evidence?

Emails often contain valuable information, from transaction records to correspondence, which can corroborate claims or provide insight into disputes. As such, they can be instrumental in:

  1. Corporate Litigation: For breaches of contract, intellectual property rights, etc.
  2. Criminal Cases: In fraud, cyberbullying, or other online crimes.
  3. Personal Disputes: Such as divorce cases or other civil matters.

Admissibility of Electronic Evidence in India

The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (amended in 2000) recognizes electronic records, including emails, as admissible evidence. However, certain conditions must be satisfied:

  1. Section 65B: Any information contained in an electronic record, to be admissible, must meet the requirements of Section 65B. This includes a certificate from a person occupying a responsible official position regarding the computer’s usage, among other things.
  2. Authenticity: It must be demonstrated that the electronic record was produced by a computer in regular use and that it’s a faithful representation of the information.

Steps to Produce Email Messages in Court

1. Retaining the Original Format

  • Don’t Alter the Email: Ensure the email remains in its original state, with no changes made post-reception.
  • Backup: Create multiple backups of the email, including on external drives or cloud storage, ensuring its preservation.

2. Capture Metadata

  • Importance: Metadata provides information on when the email was sent/received, the involved parties, IP addresses, and more.
  • Tools: Use specialized software tools that can extract and preserve metadata without alteration.

3. Print the Email

  • Hard Copy: A printed version, preferably in color, can be handy for court proceedings and presentations.
  • Ensure: The printed version should include all the necessary details, including date, time, sender, recipient, and the content.

4. Section 65B Certificate

  • Requirement: As per the Evidence Act, electronic records should be accompanied by a certificate as described under Section 65B.
  • Details: The certificate should confirm the email’s authenticity, the system’s functioning, and its regular operation.

5. Witness Testimony

  • Corroborating Evidence: In certain cases, the testimony of a person familiar with the computer’s operation or the email’s context can bolster its credibility.
  • Expert Witness: In cases where technicalities are contested, an expert in digital forensics or IT may be summoned to verify the email’s authenticity.
  • Legal Guidance: Given the intricacies of electronic evidence law, it’s imperative to consult with a lawyer well-versed in cyber law and the Evidence Act.
  • Pre-Submission Review: Let your lawyer review the email and the supporting documents before submission.

Challenges & Considerations

  1. Chain of Custody: Maintain a clear record of who has had access to the email, ensuring its integrity.
  2. Privacy Concerns: Ensure the email doesn’t contain sensitive information unrelated to the case, which could violate privacy laws or rights.
  3. Encryption: If the email was encrypted, details of the encryption method and its relevance might be needed.
  4. Deleted Emails: Retrieving deleted emails could require digital forensic experts to ensure the recovery process doesn’t affect authenticity.


Emails, though digital, are potent pieces of evidence that can influence the course of legal proceedings in India. However, ensuring their admissibility requires meticulous preparation, adherence to the law, and often, expert guidance. It’s always best to be proactive: familiarize yourself with the legal landscape, keep pristine records, and engage competent legal counsel to navigate the intricate world of electronic evidence in Indian courts.